Çaltılar höyük is located in the northern Lycia, close to the ancient cities of Oinoanda and Balbura. It is an early, substantial and a long-lived settlement mound. Its main phases of occupation date from the Late Chalcolithic (4th-3rd millennium B.C.) to the middle of the 6th century B.C. (a date that coincides with the Persian conquest of Lycia), but there is not enough evidence of later occupation or use.
Bristol and Liverpool Universities carried out research activities at Çaltılar Höyük, between 2008 and 2010. The nature of their finds suggests that the site, despite its location in the summer pastures (yayla) and at a considerable altitude (1,250m), was well-connected to other Anatolian and Aegean regions, and probably served as more than just a minor seasonal agro-pastoral settlement, particularly during its Early Bronze Age and Late Iron Age periods of occupation. The evidence relevant to the second millennium BC is too limited at present to allow further interpretation about the nature of occupation at the site, but is significant per se, especially in view of the scanty archaeological remains of this period in the region, and despite the numerous references to the Lukka people and settlements available in documentary sources.